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Full text of "Indians at work"

15 

\IM 1 1 
1 



INDIANS 

AT • WORK 




OCTOBER 15, 1937 

A NEWS SHEET FOR INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 

OF- INDIAN -AFFAIR 

WASHINGTON, D.C. 




IMPORTANT NOTICE 

Since the demand for "INDIANS AT WORK" grows and since the 
total number issued must remain fixed, we have "been revising our 
mailing list with the objective of curtailing it to those who 
really read "INDIANS AT WORK." Form letters were sent out in 
August to our entire mailing list with the request that the re- 
cipients state whether they wished to be retained on the list 
and that they return the form by September 15. Most of these 
forms have been returned. Those who have not replied, and who 
do not reply by November 1, we shall be obliged to drop from 
the list , in order to make room for new applicants. 



]ND UNS AT IORK 
CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF OCTOBER 15, 1937 

Volume V Number 2 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

Cover Design 6 

American Indian Day Celebrated September 25 7 

Columbus Liked Indians 9 

Indian Service Hospital Standards Improve 11 

Indian Service Employees' First Responsibility 

To Their Superintendent 14 

In Maine D'Arcy McNickle 15 

CCC At The Alabama-Coushat ta Reservation, 

Livingston, Texas Clenson Sylestine 18 

Pamphlet On Blackf oot Indian Peace Council 19 

Irrigation In Arizona A Thousand Years Old 19 

Trailers For CCC Work On The Blackf eet 

Reservation In Montana 20 

The Arapaho Cannery - How It Works 21 

Daughters Of The American Revolution Offer 

Help In Indian Service Program 23 

Various Tribes Pass Resolutions Affirming Faith 

In Indian Re o reaniz at i on Act 24 

A Camp For Indian Children 25 

Miniature Object-Lessons In Housing Martha Jane Bucher 26 

Wakpala' s Subsistence Garden Successful Fred Anderson 27 

News From The Muddy Creek Day School • 30 

Red Shirt Table Sioux Maintain Nisht Watch To 

Save Young Turkeys • 32 

The Jemez Yucca Ring-Basket Ten Broeck Williamson ....... 33 

Personnel Changes • 35 

CCC, Work Centers Around Soil Saving At Shawnee, 

Oklahoma Robert Keokuk 36 

A Story Of Indian Fidelity Joseph Henry Kilbuck 38 

CCC On San Carlos Reservation Louis Moses 39 

Who's Who 4° 

Two Survivors Of The Battle Of The Little 

Big Horn Frank White Buffalo Man 41 

CCC - ID Helps In Tick Eradication J. E. Farley 42 

Notes From CCC - ID 43 



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President Roosevelt at Bcnneville Dam discussed regional 
planning. Here, he pointed out, was the beginning of true decen- 
tralization. Regional planning means the gradual development of 
programs native to local areas, reflecting local experience and 
need, and representing the increasing team-action of the subdivi- 
sions of government and ultimately of the people themselves with- 
in the areas. Such regional planning would put an end to wholesale 
and cataclysmic changes of policy decreed at Washington or incident 
to national political turnovers. President Roosevelt was talking 
about regional planning comprehensively, but every word that he 
said might have been used about Indian Service, had he been talk- 
ing of Indian Service particularly. 

Regional planning ultimately means decentralization of 
authority into regions. 



Regional and local-area planning and management are at 
the heart of the Indian Reorganization Act, hut they would he 

hardly less imperative if there existed no Indian Reorganization 
Act. 

The Great Plains Indian areas are one evident and urgent 
case for regional planning. 

The Lake States, so far as Indian Service is concerned, 
are another. 

The Southwest is a third. 

Because watersheds have so profound a hearing upon human 
groupings and economic life, they are natural areas for regional 
planning. However, cultural conditions, and "boundaries of exist- 
ing political subdivisions, frequently reach across watershed ' 
limits; and again, within watersheds there are communities of proh- 
lems more local than the watersheds or "basins where they are found. 

The country is embarked upon an exploration into the 
subject of proper regional areas, methods of regional planning, 
and, above all, methods of uniting the planning work of experts 
with the thinking of electorates and of "business groups. 

One step toward regional planning was taken at Gallup, 
Few Mexico, by the Southwestern Indian Superintendents, recently. 
They proposed a Southwestern Superintendents' Conference which 
might develop into an organization. Their suggestion was endorsed 



at headquarters, and their second meeting was held at Albuquerque, 
September 18. Among other proposals adopted at Albuquerque, was 
the following: 

That for the whole Southwest or a part of it, there be 
established a control by one Washington representative over the 
supervisory and at-large personnel of the Indian Service. This 
Washington representative would make it his business to use the 
supervisory forces with maximum effect and minimum of overlapping 
and conflict. Already, for the Oklahoma area, plans have been 
adopted at Washington to give to the coordinator the control over 
itineraries of supervisory and at-large personnel. The Superin- 
tendents' proposal, made at Albuquerque, points toward a genuine 
though limited regional ization, going beyond plan-making. Coming 
from the Superintendents, it illustrates the fact that local jur- 
isdictions know that they need help from the Washington divisions 
and the field agents of these divisions, but they want that help 
to be used in a planned, integrated fashion, pointed toward area- 
building and region-building. The Southwest Superintendents will 
continue to hold their meetings at intervals, and the Department 
is at one with their thinking as here reported. 



Before me, as I write, is a stimulating document, "Re- 
port on the History and Contemporary State * * * of Creek Social 
Organization and Government," "by Morris E. Opler, Assistant Anthro- 
pologist, Indian Service. Dr. Opler 1 s study is a kind of human 
archaeology, which unearths the Creek towns - groupings which once 
were potent in the life of the Creek Indians and which, Dr. Opler 

finds, are forgotten only by the white man and not by the Creek 
Indians* 

If Creek organization, in its modern pattern, should in- 
corporate the Creek towns, many people would say: "This is going 
hack to the blanket; this is Indianizing the Indian; this is 
merely a revival of the past." 

Everywhere, such remarks are called forth when Indian 
policy tries to take account of ancient Indian realities. 

The same individuals who make the remark do not hesitate 
to talk about "the Anglo-Saxon tradition of America." That tradi- 
tion stems from about the year 500 A.D. 

They know that the Constitution is one hundred and fifty 
years old, and that it was formulated by a group of newly-emanci- 
pated colonies situated on the Atlantic Coast line. 

They are weli aware that their own moral and religious 
sources are the New and Old Testaments, 1900 and 3000 years old. 



And the same individuals live in a world about which 
Sir Henry Maine made the remark: "Every idea that moves in the 
modern world is Greek in its origin." 

And every one of these individuals, in dealing with his 
own children (if he has even a little bit of scientific informa- 
tion), knows that their manhood and womanhood personality is "being 
"built up out of types of interest which relate themselves back ? 
biologically and socially, to the Old Stone Age. 

Why are Indians singled out as the only people who ought 
not to have a past - a living past which energizes their present? 
I sup-oose that the error of thinking which so many people apply to 
Indians really is an unconscious hang-over from the decades when 
Indians were looked upon as a doomed ra.ce, made by their racial In- 
dianhood incapable of doing business in the modern world. 

Even an anthropologist, an eminent one, recently corre- 
sponded with me to the effect that Indian traditions in one of the 
most profoundly traditional of Indian groups were to become extinct 
before fifty years have passed. That same Indian group has been in 
contact with the white world for three hundred years, has imported 
white influences to the heart of its own culture, is making its 
own way in the present world, and has no idea of ceasing to be it- 
self. Tet the prophesy is made. 



The Indians successfully occupied this continent for 
twelve or twenty thousand years, and they lived a life "both good 
and profound. They displayed unsurpassed human qualities of loy- 
alty, faithfulness to earth and man, faithfulness to unseen powers, 
and adaptability to the practical. 

Their social history is no briefer than that of the 
white man. Indian policy must go ahead, and with greater resource- 
fulness, finding and using the potent elements that yet live in 
the Indian spirit and social memory. 




Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



COVER DESIGN : WHITE BUFFALO CALF SAID TO PRESAGE GOOD TIMES 

On the cover of this issue of "Indians At Work" is a photograph 
of the white buffalo calf which was bred by the U. S. Biological Survey on 
the bison range within the boundaries of the Flathead Reservation, Montana. 
White buffalo have always been prized by Plains Indians and the news of the 
birth of this calf, which has spread to nearby reservations, has been re- 
garded by many of the local Indians as an omen of fine crops and good times 
to come. 

6 



AMERICAN INDIAN DAY CELEBRATED IK NEW YORK STATE S EPTEMBER 25; 
CHESTER E. FARIS REPRESENTS COMMISSIONER COLLIER 



American Indian Day, sponsored "by the Neighborhood Indian Society 
of Rochester, with Dr. Arthur C. Parker as chairman, was celebrated on Sept- 
ember 25 at a gathering of some 3,000 in Ellison Park, near Rochester, New 
York. In the course of the celebration, a group of Senecas took part in a 
colorful thanksgiving ceremony and whites and Indians spoke on present-day 
Indian problems. 

Commissioner Collier was represented at the occasion by Chester E. 
Faris, Field Representative of the Commissioner. The message from the Com- 
missioner follows: 

"You have met here to offer thanks, after the manner of your 
own tradition, for the good things that have come to you and this is 
as it should be. 

"It is always good that any people, or any group of people, 
should maintain not alone a beautiful ceremony, but with it the 
spiritual foundation in which such a ceremony must preserve its 
roots. I think that you, the Indians of New York State, have suc- 
ceeded in retaining both the spirit and the reality of your tradi- 
tional commemoration. Such a thing is not easy to do. You have 
been beset for many, many years by influences that would tend to 
destroy in you all that is native and much that is traditional. 
That you have preserved your identity as a people in the face of 
an ever-mounting pressure across three centuries of time, is in 
itself an eloquent indication of the tremendous surge of your In- 
dian consciousness; of your Indian inheritance. 

"This strength has drawn to you many friends whose admira- 
tion for your courage and your determination has made them assist 
your cause. Among these friends are many officials and people of 
power and influence in New York State. Among them also, and par- 
ticularly within recent years, is the federal government itself. 
But not all of your friends and not all of your determination are 
stronger than the forces that militate toward your destruction as 
a race and as self-sustaining citizens of this greatest of all 
democracies. Only by the exercise of ceaseless vigilance has some 
part of your heritage remained. 

"If you are to go forward as you wish to go and as you need to 
go, the' same and greater vigilance is needed. If you do not move 
forward as a people, inevitably, you must go backward. Just as 
this country as a free democracy must face the choice of going for- 



ward or of retrograding to that low estate already reached "by some 
unfortunate peoples whose desire for freedom and for progress may 
be as powerful as our own. You need to realize and you do realize 
that those same forces, which for 300 and more years have sought to 
crush the Indian, are today, as always, the same forces that would 
destroy the essentials of democracy. 

"The historic exploiter of the Indian has a modern counterpart 
in our everyday life. He still exists by virtue of his capacity 
for depriving the Indian of his "birthright. Very naturally, this 
spiritual descendant of the early despoilers of Indians has no wish 
for Indian advancement or Indian independence. He fights these 
things with all the tools at his command and they are many. And in 
addition, and quite aside from deliberate exploitation, is race 
prejudice - still in many places the foe of the Indian. I believe 
these opponents will not in the end suffice to keep the Indian in 
his old -spiritual and economic subjugation. 

"Briefly, far too briefly, I want to tell you a few of the 
positive things we have been able to do. We have stopped the re- 
lentless alienation of Indian land and have acquired new and better 
lands. The great Indian estate which totalled 130,000,000 acres 
in 1887 had dwindled, under the combined effects of the general Al- 
lotment Act and the ruthlessness of white land grabbers, to 49,000,- 
000 acres of the poorest lands. Since 1933 we have stopped this 
alienation and have added four million acres to the residue. Bet- 
ter still, we are rebuilding and reclaiming the vast areas of once 
fine land that by the ravages of wind and water and the worse rav- 
ages of ignorance were swiftly degenerating toward economic barren- 
ness. Soon these fertile and productive lands would have become 
desert. This, by scientific study and with fine cooperation from 
local and federal agencies, we are stopoing. But it is a long slow 
fight. 

"Many of you know about the provision that has been made un- 
der the Reorganization Act of 1934 for Indian self-government. Per- 
haps you do not know the great forward strides that have been made 
by the Indians of the West, the Southwest and the Great Plains un- 
der this new bill of rights. As a measure of self-determination 
it was made a part of this act that only those groups which elected 
to do so would participate in its benefits. New York State Indians 
and some of the other great groups of Indians, notably the Navajos, 
have not come within its scope. But this is not disappointing for 
we wished, first of all, that Indians exercise their own best judg- 
ment. Much evidence has come to us from the Indians themselves 
that they were not possessed of all the facts when they voted to 
exclude themselves and numerous urgent requests for new elections 
have been made to the Indian Service and to Congress. But no new 
election is possible without Congressional action. But Indians 



everywhere are observing the phenomenal forward movement of those 
tribes, approximately 180, who have accepted the Reorganization 
Act, and they, very naturally, wonder whether they were wise in 
their rejection. 

"In even the brief time at my disposal I cannot fail to men- 
tion the changes in the economic life of Indian groups made possi- 
ble by the extension of Federal credit which prior to passage of 
the Act was not available to the Indians. In fact, no credit, 
practically speaking, was available to them at all. No matter how 
deserving, they simply could not get it. Now they are getting it 
and they are using it wisely and well. 

"The Indian has disproved the time-worn platitudes of his in- 
competency, his laziness and his inability to compete on an equal 
footing with white men. Given equal opportunity, he has proven 
himself equal, if not superior, to, white workers. And this oppor- 
tunity is being provided not only in the many emergency activities 
we have set up, but in the regular Indian Service as well. We are 
extremely proud of Indian work. 

"I have not time here to dwell on the progress that has been 
made in reviving and revitalizing Indian arts and crafts. In this, 
only a beginning has been made as yet, but a beginning so inspir- 
ing that we hesitate to predict the future. 

"All these things, and many more, are going forward. Not all 
of them are new and not all of them are successful, but all are 
vastly stimulating and some of them are exciting. The Indian every- 
where is proving that his friends have not been wrong these many 
years when they pleaded for the New Deal that he is now receiving. 

"The center of our objective is the recreation of a race of 
men. We are not doing it, make no mistake about thati It is the 
Indian himself who is doing it and who will continue to do it. We 
are merely helping him to find himself." 



****** 
COLUMBUS LIKED INDIANS 

In a letter to the King and Queen of Spain, Christopher Columbus 
wrote: 

"I swear to your majesties that there is not a better people in the 
world; more affectionate, affable and mild. They love their neighbors as 
themselves, and they always sneak smilingly." Taken from The Southwest Tourist 
News. 






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INDIAN SERVICE HOSPITALS GRADUALLY - MEETING STANDARDS FOR 
ACCEPTANCE BY THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS 



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The Albuquerque Indian Sanatorium - New Mexico 



In 1930, there was 
not one Indian Service hospi- 
tal which was able to meet the 
minimum requirements for ac- 
ceptance by the American Col- 
lege of Surgeons, a profess- 
ional organization which 
seeks to promote high stand- 
ards in medical and surgical 
practice and hospital service. 

In 1931, the Pawnee- 
Ponca and Claremore Indian 
Hospitals in Oklahoma were 
the first accepted as meet- 
ing the minimum requirements. 
The Kiowa Hospital and Shawn- 
ee Sanatorium in Oklahoma and the Ta.coma Sanatorium in Washington were added 
to the accepted list in 1932; the Rosebud Hospital in South Dakota received 
provisional acceptance in 1933; the Clinton, Oklahoma, Hospital was accepted 
in 1934 and the Cheyenne and Arapaho Hospital at Concho, Oklahoma was given 
provisional acceptance in 1934. The Albuquerque Sanatorium in New Mexico was 
provisionally accepted as of January 1, 1936. 

The minimum standards which hospitals must meet to. receive approval 
from the American College of Surgeons include the following: 

1. There must be a staff which is an integrated, 
functioning group, made up of competent, well qualified 
physicians and surgeons who meet for discussion and review 
of cases and case records at least once each month. 

2. Careful and complete case records must be kept 
of each patient admitted. 

3. The hospital facilities must be complete and 
include a clinical laboratory which provides for chemical 
and bacteriological examinations, a serological and patholo- 
gical service and an X-ray department. Reports must be 
furnished by a recognized pathologist on the tissues re- 
moved at operation. 



11 



VIEWS FROM SHA-WHEE IMP IAN SANATORIUM AT SHAWNSB . OKLAHOMA. 







The Clinical Laboratory 




The Major Operating Room 



This last-mentioned requirement is one which it is difficult for 
the Indian Service, with its limited funds and personnel, to meet. However, 
the National Institute of Health cooperates with the Indian Service by exam- 
ining all of the appendices and tumor tissues which have been removed from 
Indian patients. In addition, the Phipps Institute and some of the state 
laboratories are helping us in the examination of these tissues. 

When the new hospitals at Talihina, Oklahoma, and Port Defiance, 
Arizona, are completed, it is planned to equip the laboratories of these 
two hospitals for tissue work and to employ a pathologist at each. This 
equipment will make it possible to fulfill this requirement not only for 
these two institutions, but also for the other hospitals in their areas. 

The minimum standards of the American College of Surgeons also set 
up requirements of post mortem examinations that are difficult for Indian Ser- 
vice hospitals to attain, since many Indian groups are prejudiced against o- 
pening bodies after death for further study. Post mortem examinations are 
permissible in the Indian Service only with the consent of relatives of the 
deceased. 

The requirement that separate dish-washing rooms outside of the 
kitchens be established in order that there may be no possibility of contam- 
inating the food in the process of preparation through dishes which have been 
used by patients, is gradually being met. 

There are a number of small hospitals under Indian Service direction 
which are rendering a high type of service to their patients and which will 
probably never be able to meet completely the American College standards be- 
cause of their size and isolated location. For example, the hospital at Kay- 
enta is 150 miles from Flagstaff, Arizona, and the Western Shoshone Hospital 
is about 100 miles from 
Elko, Nevada. It is not 
possible to organize staffs 
in these locations because 
local specialists cannot 
participate in Indian Serv- 
ice work at such distances 
from their regular respon- 
sibilities. 

Achieving recog- 
nition of Indian Service 
hospitals in the face of 
these requirements is nec- 
essarily slow; but the 
record of the past five 
years shows that progress 
is being made. 

********* 

A Six-Bed Women's Ward At The Shawnee Sanatorium, 
Shawnee, Oklahoma 




13 



INDIAN SERVICE EMPLOYEES' FIRST RESPONSIBILITY TO THEIR SUPERINTENDENT 



TO ALL INDIAN SERVICE EMPLOYEES: 

The occasion recently arose for me to send the following letter to 
a member of the Indian Service: 

"I have been sent a copy of a memorandum of August 27 which 

you addressed to Superintendent . This memorandum concerned 

the clearing of Road projects with representatives of the Bureau 
of Public Roads and also had to do with the employment of a drafts- 
man. 

"This letter is not to engage in a general discussion of the 
subject matter of your memorandum, but to draw your attention to a 
phrase in the final paragraph of the memorandum which read as fol- 
lows, 'you will also realize that my first responsibility lies with 
the road department. 1 

"As emphatically as I can, I wish to make it clear that your 
immediate responsibility and that of every employee at an Agency, 
is to the Agency Superintendent. The Superintendent of an Agency 
is directly responsible to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and 
is the only person with administrative authority over Agency em- 
ployees. No technical division of the Indian Office, including 
the Roads Division, has any administrative authority over any 
Agency employee. The function of the technical divisions is advis- 
ory only. 

"Furthermore, employees must learn to think of themselves, not 
as 'Road' men, or 'Extension 1 agents, or representatives of any 
technical branch, but first of all as members of the Indian Service 
and as members of their Agency staffs. Pride and loyalty should 
be in the Service and not in some particular technical field. 

"Please understand that this is not a reprimand. I appreciate 
your natural pride in being a good 'road' man and your desire to be 
professionally efficient. But I could not let pass the opportunity 
to set you right concerning the attitude which we expect of all In- 
dian Service employees." 

It does not matter that this employee happens to be responsible for 
road work, nor does it matter where he is serving. The message I am trying 
to get across is applicable to all employees of the Indian Service regardless 
of the technical field or the jurisdiction in which they serve. 

We are all members of the United States Indian Service . Let us for- 
get the sort of talk so often heard, about the technical branches which some 
of us happen to represent. 

John Collier 
Commissioner 

14 



IN MA. DIE 

By D'Arcy McNickle 

Administrative Assistant - Office Of Indian Affairs 

Here at Eastport, Maine, on the Bay of Fundy, old ocean shows his 
strength. 

Standing on a height of land, one watches the tidal course rush 
with the speed of a mountain river. Blue water leaps high where cross-cur- 
rents meet. Foam flecks the eddies. One gets dizzy with watching. 

At low tide a ruin of shattered rock shows how sledge-like is the 
pounding of water on a resistant shore. A "brown scum of seaweed marks the 
tidal crest. A thousand white gulls flash upward, then drift downward again. 

That is Passamaquoddy, where Army engineers have undertaken to 
deal directly with ocean's elemental forces. 

Four Hundred Indians At Fas samaquo ddy 

And here on Passamaquoddy, within earshot of the tidal roar, lives 
a rather forlorn hand of Algonquin-speaking Indians. About 400 of them, all 
of them expressing themselves in their native tongue, some of them speaking 
no other with any ease. Four-year-olds playing in the dust open their eyes 
wide to a question put to them in English. They say something in their In- 
dian tongue and continue the play - friendly, hut not impressed by a visitor 
who doesn't know how to talk in accustomed ways. 

Four hundred Indians on about 100 or more acres of land - rock 
ledge with a sheathing of thin soil. The gardens look sickly. But this year, 
they say, has been unusually dry. 

Poor Housing^ Bad Water 

Perhaps it is the houses that give the forlorn effect. One knows 
what to expect of Indian houses. These are no better and no worse. But 
sensing how cold and blustery the Bay of Fundy winters must be, one realizes 
that houses should be considerably better than adequate. They are sheathed 
with weathered shingles, but even the best of the lot was not fully sealed 
inside. The foundations were not banked up. Wood is scarce. The state 
provides a limited supply of firewood but if the winter is exceptionally 
bitter and enduring, some have to sit by cold fires. The houses, village 
fashion, are built fairly close together; and since there is no piped water 
supply, an errant spark and a high wind could wipe out the settlement in a 
flash. 



15 



And speaking of water. The inhabitants depend on shallow wells, 
five of which supply the community. The summer has "been very dry and three 
wells have failed. This is had enough, but even worse is the fact that the 
wells were condemned by health authorities several years ago and are now un- 
der ban. However, since it is the only water available, it has to do. One 
case of dysentery was reported to me. 

Ninety Per Cent On Relief 

Except for emergency projects, one cannot understand how these 
people survive. At the present time, a small road building project is in 
operation on the reservation. Until the Passamaquoddy project shut down 
recently, a number of men were employed there and, so I was told, left im- 
pressive records as laborers. The section around Eastport is slowly ex- 
piring. Eastport itself is in default. Consequently, odd jobs are not to 
be had. Upwards of 90 per cent of the Indian population is on relief at 
$1.00 per head per week. 

This problem of relief explains the seemingly large appropriation 
which the State of Maine has been approving in recent years. For the last 
biennura, approximately $49,000 was appropriated, but only a small part of 
this went to health, education and similar social services; none of it went 
into capital investment. There are no horses on the reservation and only 
one cow. Pigs and chickens are also lacking. 

Skillful Basket Making Still Survives 

Everyone in the village seems to take a hand at basket making, a 
craft still vigorously alive. Pew forms are traditional and it is unfortunate 
that they have substituted coal tar dyes for their native vegetable colors. 
The latter are too expensive to use and the former colors, being very strong, 
are not properly blended. The baskets are sometimes garish, but the handiwork 
remains consistently skillful. Perhaps their best products are the plain 
baskets of split ash. 

Income which might result from basket work, they complain, is car- 
ried away by gypsies who haunt Maine resorts with a variety of cheap basketry 
which they palm off as Indian ware, passing themselves off as Indians while 
they do it. The State has recently passed a law setting up penalties for im- 
personating an Indian, but evidently the law has not been enforced. 

Hunting Helps The Princeton Passamaquoddy Indians 

More fortunate, in a way, is the small band of about 150 Passama- 
quoddys up at Princeton, Maine, about 50 miles northwest of Eastport. This 



16 



Princeton group is made up entirely of full-bloods or near- full -bloods, none 
of whom speak English habitually. They are called "unprogressive" because 
they have kept more or less intact their native ways of living. 

This group gets a break as a result of recent decision of the state 
legislature. Until the last legislative session, the Indians of Maine had 
been required to pay hunting and fishing licenses on the same basis as did 
white men. While the license does not cost much, the scarcity of cash among 
them has made even a small fee a problem. Now, Indians are exempted. They 
may hunt, in season, as freely as they like. And in the country surrounding 
the Princeton reserve, there is abundant game - moose, deer, bear and fish. 
Strange fact, but they will be enjoying conditions as much like their ancient 
life as, perhaps, any Indian group in the United States. 



The Penobscot Indians Of Oldtown 

Farther south, twelve miles up river from Bangor, Maine, a second 
group of Indians, the Penobscot, have their homes today in approximately the 
same area which they occupied before the coming of white men. Oldtown, which 
is just across 50 yards of water from their present island reserve, was set- 
tled by them in 1669. In treaties dated 1786 and 1818, they ceded their 
hunting territory in the Penobscot River Valley for a chain of islands lying 
in the Eiver from Oldtown northward. Most of them - the tribe numbers slight- 
ly over 500 - dwell on Oldtown Island but have summer camps on islands far- 
ther upstream. 

The islands are well-wooded and they have not the firewood problem 
which is so acute among the Passaraaquoddy at Eastport. The land also is more 
fertile and there is an ample amount of it. 

Altogether, the Penobscot have been more kindly dealt with by time 
and fortune. It is common to have them described as being more progressive 
than the Passamaquoddy group - but at least some part of their relatively 
favorable condition is directly due to their greater resources and the fact 
that they live in a better settled and more prosperous region. Oldtown it- 
self has the appearance of being industrially alive, while Bangor, one of 
Maine's largest cities, is nearby. 

But it is necessary to say "relatively favorable" because, in spite 
of their advantages, they live in crumbling houses and health conditions are 
far from satisfactory. The State has just completed construction of water 
and sewage system but too little attention has been given to teaching them 
to make use of their resources. This group is essentially dependent, wait- 
ing for things to be done for them, while most of their lend lies idle. A 
A thorough program of social and economic planning is needed for them. The 
philosophy of state aid is the familiar one of passively doling out funds 
for essentially unproductive services. 



17 



In the Penobscot group, assimilation has progressed further. The 
native language, which is still very much alive, is less the instinctive tool 
than it is among the Passamaquod&y. Also, the strain of white blood is, 
stronger and more widely spread. Among the Eastport hand of Passamaquoddy to- 
day, only eight white people are intermarried in the tribe; at Princeton, ac- 
cording to report, no white people are intermarried. At OldtoWn, on the oth- 
er hand, there must he quite a few such intermarriages. 

A good proportion of Penobscot hoys and girls attend the public 
high school at Oldtown. Four or five are in college at the present time or 
have been recently. One girl has had a successful career as a dancer and 
was headlined at the French Colonial Exposition of 1931. She also played 
a prominent part in the Indian film "Silent Enemy" 

Indian affairs in Maine are administered by the State's Department 
of Public Health and Welfare. A State Agent, with headquarters at Eastport, 
looks after both groups. Each tribe has trust funds, amounting to $138,000 
for the Passamaquoddy and $88,000, for the Penobscot. 

Both groups maintain tribal organization led by a governor, council- 
lors and other officers who are elected Dy the group. 



CCC AT THE ALABAMA-COUSHATTA RESERVA TION, LIV INGSTO N, TEXAS 
By Clenson Sylestine - Leader, CCC - ID 

We are located in the southeastern part of Texas in a bushy and 
timbered country known as "The Big Thicket." 

I am the leader of the 62 Indian CCC boys working on this reserva- 
tion. We have had several large projects to work on - cutting fire lanes 
through the reservation, timber stand improvements, range revegetation, 
mosquito control and cleaning out creek channels. The timber stand improve- 
ment has been especially interesting to us because we have learned how to 
protect our timber growth. 

The men are all full-blood Indians of the two tribes - the Alabama, 
and Coushatta. They are hard-working people. Our population has shown a 
considerable increase in the past three years which means a need for more 
homes and the development of new parts of the reservation. 

We are also increasing our number of cattle and stock. Now, with 
the canning plant we are able to put up .our garden products for winter use. 

The CCC work has been the life of this reservation for the past 
three years: it has given us employment and taught us many lines of work 
through which we can improve our land. 



18 



PAMPHLET - ON BLAGKFQOT INDIAN PEACE COUNCIL ISSUED BY 
MONTANA STATE UNIVERSITY 



Montana State University has issued as Bulletin No. 3 in its series 
Sources of Northwest History a pamphlet edited by Albert J. Partoll entitled, 
"The Blackfoot Indian Peace Council." * The pamphlet contains the official 
proceedings of the treaty between the Blackfoot Nation and other Indians and 
the United States, made in October 1855. Careful annotations explain the 
text. 

In a preface, Mr. Partoll speaks of the importance of this treaty 
which inaugurated peaceful relations among Indian tribes of the area and be- 
tween Indians and whites. "In many ways the Blackfoot Indian council cor- 
responded to the international peace tribunals of the white men," the preface 
states. "Warriors who had previously met only on the field of battle, or had 
taken part in expeditions for plundering each other, forgot their past differ- 
ences to listen to the words of the 'Great Soldier Chief 1 , as Stevens (Govern- 
or Isaac I. Stevens, of Washington Territory, who was also superintendent of 
Indian affairs of the Territory) was titled by the Indians. Wise tribal cotm- 
cillors chose to arbitrate with diplomacy, not force. Statesmanship was pre- 
ferable to the chaos of battle." 

The pamphlet may be obtained from Montana State University at Mis- 
soula. 



* Historical Reprints - Blackfoot Indian Peace Council , edited by Albert J. 
Partoll. Sources of Northwest History No. 3; general editor, Paul C. Phillips , 
Montana State University, Missoula, Montana. 1937. 11 pp. 



IRRIGATION IS ARIZONA A THOUSAND YEARS OLD 

Irrigation in Arizona, according to the University of Arizona, is 
more than one thousand years old. In both the Salt and Gila River Valleys, 
now watered by the Roosevelt and Coolidge Dams, the ancient pueblo tribes 
once irrigated their lands. The ancient canal systems can be traced in many 
parts of the state and such was the engineering skill of these early people 
that in some places the modern canal closely follows the contours of the pre- 
historic irrigation system. 

Today the total land actually watered in the state approximately 
is 575,000 acres. Of this the Roosevelt Dam, built in 1911, placed under 
irrigation 228,000 acres; the Yuma project, a year later, brought 51,000 un- 
der irrigation^ and in 1920 the Coolidge Dam added 55,000 more acres to the 
irrigation area. 



19 



TRAILERS FOR C.C.C. TORK ON THE BLACKFEET RESERVATION IN MONTANA 

Part of the CGC - 113 program on the Blackfeet Reservation has "been 
the development of a series of reservoirs to provide water for arid outlying 
areas. Since the work was to "be carried on in isolated parts of the reserva- 
tion, the problem of housing the work crews which would remain at each loca- 
tion only temporarily, was a pressing one. The obvious answer was trailers. 

The movable reservoir camp illustrated "below is the result of care- 
ful plans. The work was done locally, "by the Indian Service. Each trailer 
has good ventilation and a complete electric light system. The cook cabin, 
dining car and two sleeping cars were finished first; later the water tanks 
and the electric plant were also mounted on wheels. 




-- : ■ ••■•-• ^. ■-,■...-- ... 






: &£P*^ 



■i~v~"~ 



■ r 



■------■«■*---••■—■•-■- ■- - ■■ ^--JSklt 



The Blackfeet Trailer Camp 



20 



THE ARAPAHO CAMERY - HOW IT WORKS 
Wind River Agency, Wyoming 




The Arapaho Canning Association 
(Photograph By H. L. Denier) 



The Arapaho Cooperative Canning Association was organized under the 
cooperative laws of the State of Wyoming during the summer of 1936. One 
hundred and four membership agreements were signed. The membership agreements 
were supported by $50,00 notes payable at the rate of $10.00 per year over a 
period of five years. 

Officers, directors and members are all Arapaho Indians. A loan 
of $13,200 was secured through the Resettlement Administration. Donations 
of equipment came from various sources, including former FERA projects. A 
ninety-nine year lease on an old school building provided the "plant." 

Through a WPA project the school building was remodeled to meet the 
first year's requirement and actual canning started in August of last year. 



21 




Freshly Laundered White 
Uniforms Are Provided Daily 



Members were given the first oppor- 
tunity to work in the cannery but all 
had to pass medical examination and 
be certified before the manager could 
place their names on the payroll. 



Fifteen Thousand Cans In 1936 

In 1936 a total pack of 
more than 15,000 Number 2^ cans of 
beans, corn and tomatoes was run in 
151 working hours . The toll basis 
was used in 1936 - the producer getting 
40 per cent and the factory 60 per 



cent. The subsistence gardens at Ethete and at Arapaho were the largest con- 
tributors. Thirty-one individuals delivered products to the cannery and one, 
Isaac Bell, sold enough of his share of canned string beans to meet his annual 
standard loan interest payment. Many of the others traded a portion of their 
canned vegetables for other commodities. 



Producti on More Than Doubles In 1937 

This year additional modern eauipment valued at $5,125 was installed, 
including an automatic corn husker, corn cutter, pea huller, bean cutter, 
tomato juicer, a 1200-can retort and a gas boiler. 

After a discussion meeting in the spring, growers signed up for 
about 83 acres: 18 acres each in peas and beans; 16 acres in tomatoes; 28 
acres in corn; three acres in pumpkins and two acres in cabbages. 

Purchase of the graded garden produce is made at a predetermined 
price, with the grower reserving the right to purchase his needs at cost. 
Payment for the vegetables is made at two -week intervals. 

By September 13 of this 
year, 38,262 Number 2^ cans of 
vegetables had been put ut> - more 
than double last year's pack. Cut 
beans accounted for 25,908 cans; 
wax beans, for 1,556; whole beans, 
for 2,459; peas, for 4,289 cans; 
and corn for 2,945. Smaller quan- 
tities of tomatoes, catsup, tomato 
juice and pumpkin were also put up. 




Inside The Arapaho Cannery 



22 



The work was new to all the employees in 1936, but they soon became 
adept. Most of the workers are girls who clean and prepare the vegetables 
for" the cans. They are paid on a piece-work basis. The heavier work is done 
by the men, who are paid by the hour. 

It is estimated that a thousand more cans of corn will be put up 
before the season is over. Tomatoes will be canned until frost. After the 
other vegetables are in, pumpkin and sauerkraut will finish the canning for 
the season. 



DAUGHTERS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION OFFER HELP IN INDIAN SERVICE PROGRAM 



The National Society of Daughters of the American Revolution, one 
of the country's largest women's organization, is helping conptructively in 
the Federal Government's program for Indians. The D. A. R. 's sub-committee 
on American Indians, under the chairmanship of Mrs. Richard Codman, of Fair 
Oaks, Sacramento County, California is again offering to cooperate with lo- 
cal Indian Service superintendents in problems of welfare and civic educa- 
tion. 

The circular letter being sent by the national committee chairman 
to the various D. A. R. state chairmen says: 

"We will assist the Indians to become good citizens. 
We will try to help them to avail themselves of all oppor- 
tunities and privileges open to other citizens, and at the 
same time to realize that these opportunities and privileges 
demand in return a responsibility toward society and toward 
our American Government. We believe the greatest benefits 
for the Indians will be achieved by working in harmony with 
all people and agencies that have the welfare of the Indians 
at hpart. We will try to foster among the Indians a feeling 
of good-will toward those people and agencies and toward the 
United States Government. We will be opposed to any Indian 
factions or to any agitators whose real purpose is to benefit 
themselves financially by stirring up hatred among the Indians 
toward the Government, those people,- and those agencies that 
have the welfare of the Indians at heart and that work for 
the benefit of the Indians. Often these agitators are very 
convincing talkers, so investigate carefully. Do not involve 
the D. A. R. in factional Indian politics. Our work is citizen- 
ship and welfare; we are strictly non-partisan. Finally, we 
will try to foster understanding and harmony between the In- 
dians and our white citizens, and to show to the white citizens 
the needs of their underprivileged Indian neighbors." 

The Indian Service welcomes this source of friendly help. 



23 



VARIOUS TRIBES PASS HE SOLUTIONS AFFIRMING FAITH IS 
INDIAN REORGANIZATION ACT 



There have come into the Washington Office during the past few 
months a number of spontaneous resolutions from various tribes expressing 
their confidence in the Indian Reorganization Act, and protesting any moves 
toward its repeal. Excerpts and summaries from some of these resolutions 
follow: 

In a letter of February 8, 1937 to Secretary Ickes, the Dressler - 
vi lle Indian C olony , Gardnerville , Nevada , vigorously objected to the pos- 
sible repeal of the Indian Reorganization Act as being deeply injurious to 
Nevada Indians. 

The president and two council members of the Western Temoke Sho- 
shone Band, Elko . Nevada., in a letter addressed to the Committee on Indian 
Affairs, protest efforts to repeal the Indian Reorganization Act as bringing 
disaster upon their people. They know, they state, that the Act is not per- 
fect, but it has brought them many substantial benefits, and they want it 
continued. 

The Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation in a resolution of 
March 13, 1937, mentions their enjoyment of powers and privileges achieved 
under the Act and protests any effort which may be made to nullify it. 

By letter of March 16, 1937, the Lower Brule Sioux , South Dakota en- 
dorse the Act. "We think the Indian Reorganization Act is a great thing for us 
and those who are on the Lower Brule Reservatio» are just now having a good 
start and we do not wish to see this great movement destroyed and we sincere- 
ly hope that nothing will be done at this time to break it down." 

By resolution of March 18, 1937, the members of the Fort Berthold 
Tribal Council , North Dakota , go on record as opposing repeal of the Indian 
Reorganization Act. 

The Great Lakes Indian Agency delegation in a statement of March 
26, 1937 endorses the Indian Reorganization Act. 

In a letter of March 27, 1937, Joseph Whitebear, President of the 
Tribal Council of Northern Cheyenne , of Montana , instructed the authorized 
tribal delegates to stand for maintenance of the Reorganization Act. 

The Oneida Tribe of Wisconsin in a recent letter condemns efforts 
to repeal the Indian Reorganization Act, or any parts of it. "It has opened 



24 



to us an opportunity for our social and economic rehabilitation" , the resolu- 
tion states. The Act has "been "a godsend" .... and has meant a "new day for 
the American Indians." 

The Omaha Tribe of Nebraska states its full staisfaction with their 
status under the Indian Reorganization Act. "It has "been proven over and 
over that the new law gives the Indian more and more voice as to the conduct 
of his affairs." ... "Had the people who having caused all of the opposition 
and promotion for the repeal of the Indian Reorganization Act visited tribes 
who are interested and who are really trying to make the best of the advan- 
tages offered, we feel sure that no such action would have been taken by 
those few." 

In a resolution dated March 22, 1937 the Omaha Tribe of Nebraska , 
the Ponca Tribe of Native Americans of Nebraska , the Santee Sioux Tribe of 
the Sioux Nation of the State of Nebraska and the Winnebago Tribe of the 
Winnebago Reservation in the State of Nebraska protested against the possible 
repeal of the Indian Reorganization Act, stating that such action would have 
a demoralizing effect upon Indians, to whom it gives the right to have a hand 
in their own affairs." 

The Pyramid Lake Tribal Council , Nevada has gone on record as op- 
posing repeal of the Indian Reorganization Act or acts which would except 
certain tribes from its provisions. 

The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe in a resolution dated April 2, 1937, 
registers vigorous protest against the repeal of the Act. It is "the only 
real safeguard ever afforded the- Indian against exploitation," the resolution 
states, and its repeal "will permanently retard the progress and advancement 
of the American Indian." 

The Papago Tribe of Arizona , by resolution of August 7, says that 
since the passage of the Indian Reorganization Ac-t "there has been developed 
and put into effect a plan for our intelligent participation in the management 
of our affairs, in accordance with tribal custom and within the framework of 
the Constitution and laws of the United States." The resolution speaks also 
of past internal dissension and factionalism and of recent material and 
spiritual progress. 



A CAMP FOR INDIAN CHILDREN 

Through cooperation between the Indian Service, the State of Minne- 
sota, the Works Progress Administration, and the War Department, about one 
hundred and twenty-five Minnewota Chippewa Indian children were given a com- 
plete camping experience this past summer. Many of them came to camp showing 
marked, sometimes extreme, underweight. Their physical improvement during the 
camp experience was striking. 



25 



MINIATURE OBJECT-LESSONS IN HOUSING ON THE 



ROSEBUD RESERVATION . SOUTH DAKOTA ' 



By Martha Jane Bucher, Home Extension Agent 




A Model Sioux Home In Miniature 

The use of calcimine as an 
inside wall finish (there is a lim- 
ited supply of white clay here on 
the reservation) ; the use of an old 
inner tube as a spring for the front 
door; a home-made bed, with srorings 
of rope or woven rawhide strips; 
sheets and pillowcases made from well- 
laundered flour sacks; a kitchen 
cabinet and a clothes closet made of 
orange crates. 

Native trees and shrubs 
are suggested for the yard: pine, 
elder, cottonwood, elm and ash trees 
may all be transplanted, as can also 
choke-cherry, plum, currant, June- 
berry and buck bushes. 



The miniature log house 
and yard illustrated below have 
served to interest Sioux women in 
improving their own home surround- 
ings. All of the improvements are 
home-made and the entire house is 
one which could be reproduced by 
most Sioux families. The house is 
of logs. The cash outlay needed for 
house and furnishings is very low. 

Some of the ideas suggested 
by the model: 




Miniature House With Roof Removed 
Showing The Interior Furnishings 



26 



IffAKPALA'S SUBSISTENCE GARDEN SUCCESSFUL - THANKS TO DAM BUILT BY CCC - ID 
Standing Rock Reservation, North Dakota 
By Fred Anderson - Senior Project Manager 

In our attempt to locate an irrigated subsistence garden at each 
sub-station on the reservation, we ran into a special problem at Wakpala. 
There was a wonderful garden site at the sub-agency and a large creek handy 
for a water supply. But the creek dried up every summer, removing the water 
supply at the wrong time. Though there were some excellent large dam sites 
on the creek, there was a railroad paralleling it which precluded the pos- 
sibility of a large reservoir. 

Several kinds of small overflow dams were suggested. The one final- 
ly selected was the rock masonry type of which the CCC. has built several 
in North Dakota. 

Since test borings showed that six feet below the creek bed we 
would strike solid shale, excavation was started to that depth for a cut-off 
wall which would keep water from going under the dam. Other men started 
boring holes with post hole diggers for footings for the apron of the dam. 
Still others started gathering rocks from the hillsides for materials for 
the dam. 

Each rock had to be scrubbed with steel brushes and water to remove 
the crust of lichens and make a clean surface to which the mortar could stick. 
The cut-off wall was carefully built up with each rock firmly bedded and com- 
pletely surrounded by the mortar. The post holes were poured full of con- 
crete for downstream footing and the whole base of the dam started of the 
rock masonry. 

Laying Masonry In Freezing Weather 

At this period our first heavy freeze of the fall hit us and it 
became necessary to erect a tent over the work and install a heater. Exca- 
vation, in the meantime, had been carried back into the banks and wings were 
now built of the masonry to keep water from going through the earth around 
the dam. A culvert pipe was laid in the mortar with a controlled gate at 
its upper end which could later be opened to flush out the reservoir. The 
dam structure was carefully built around the culvert. 

Now we had to heat the rocks, heat the mortar and keep the temper- 
ature of the structure well above the freezing point; still, the dam took 
shape fast. 

Upon completion of the job we cleaned up and waited for the spring 
run-off. Sometimes we wondered if the snow water from 150 sauare miles 



P7 



VIEWS OF THE WAKPALA DAM 




The Wakpala Dam Was Built Under Cover During A Severe Winter 




I 



i 



The Only Waterfall On The Standing Rock Reservation 



28 



might not wash out this little chunk of rock and concrete. But it held. In 
fact, when we had our cloudbursts during the first part of June, the water ran 
so deep over the dam, there wasn't even a ripple where the dam was - but it 
emerged whole. 

The Community Launches A Garden 

An eight-acre garden - large enough to take care of the community - 
was laid out. With the garden completed and a water supply assured there was 
an enthusiastic response to the call of Farm Agent Floyd Billings for garden 
operators. A meeting was held of those interested; officers of a garden as- 
sociation were elected; and an assessment of two dollars was made against 
each member for operation of the pump. Plots of slightly less than one-half 
acre each were made. Members drew lots for the various plots. 

One acre was assigned to the twenty young members of the 4-H Club. 
It was laid out in ten 300-foot rows. Since each member took care of a 
transverse section of the ten-row strip and had exactly the same vegetables 
in his section as his fellow-workers, the competition was keen. 

Two garden plots were taken care of by Smith-Hughes fellowship 
students who applied the gardening knowledge they had learned at school. The 
bulk of the land was divided among sixteen families, each of whom had their 
own plot. 

A wide variety of vegetables was raised, all of good quality. The 
garden has a strategic location, with hills and trees on two sides to protect 
it from the hot, dry summer winds. Some of the local residents say that 
there was once a sheep corral on the site; perhaps this accounts for the 
phenomenal growths obtained. 

Altogether the dam and its reservoir and the garden itself have 
proved to be entirely satisfactory. We can recommend this type of project to 
other reservations with similar conditions. 




Wakpala Irrigation Site Being Leveled 



29 



NEWS PROM THE MUDDY CREEK DAY SCHOOL 



The Muddy Creek Day School on the Tongue River Reservation, about 
fifteen miles west of Lame Deer, Montana, is attended toy tooth Indian and white 
children. It is under Indian Service direction. 

The children of the school write, illustrate and issue a typewritten 
magazine entitled "The Muddy Creek Rattler." Some excerpts from it follow. 

Vacatio n Notes 

My name is Buell Rotoinson. 

I am seven years old. 

My toirthday is July 30th. 

I live four miles from school. 

I ride a horse to school. 

My sister rides too. 

Her name is Dolly. 

We have fun riding to school. 

I am in the second grade. 



My name is Ervin Elliot. 

I am seven years old. 

My toirthday is January eighth. 

We tried to kill a mouse this morning. 

The Priest is up at the church. 

I have a horse. Its name is Shoestring. 

Mickey is not here this morning yet. 

I like to slide down hill. 




The Muddy Creek Day School 



30 



I played with Junie up home with my dolls. Sometimes 
Ervin makes his horse Duck. I like to come to school. Junie 
likes to ride Ervin' s horse. Sargie likes to make things with a 
hammer. He tries to make animals. He is four years old. Junie 
is three. I am six years old. Loretta Elliot. 




The Teacher's Quarters 



From The Eighth Grade : 



We had lots of work to do this summer, so we did not get 
down to Sheridan as we wanted to do. I had lots of fun though. I 
helped my sister in the house. We canned lots of fruit. We had to 
cook for the threshers. We were going to have a picnic on the Fourth 
of July "but it rained so we couldn't go. My cousins, Ike and George 
Jewell came from Wyoming to visit us. They stayed three days, then 
they had to go hack. My father took them to Colstrip. My sister 
Betty goes to Hardin High School. By Mary Marie Rowland . 



I had a lot of fun this summer. My cousin, Regina Spang 
stayed with us. She is thirteen years old too. There was a lot 
of work hut we did it up in a hurry. We rode horsehack and roped 
calves. She stayed with us a month. Leona and Juanita Spang stayed 
with us while they were on their vacation. I went to Sheridan when 
my "brothers went to school. We stayed four days. We saw a circus 
while we were there. I "bought myself some clothes down there. By 
Eloise Elaine Rohinson. 



31 



Some Of The Cattle Brands Used Near Muddy Creek 

I. D. - Interior or Indian Department ID 

Three Circle - Brown Land Cattle Company {3j 

Flying V ^^ 

Z Bar - Lafe Elliott 2: 

N Bar 5 - P. G. Kelly N — O 

Reversed E 4 - George Burns -J+ 

Lazy E Y - Robert Burns U-* • 

Bar 5 Reversed D - Jimmie Burns ~S d 

2 X Bar - Julia Burns 2#X~~ 

5 Bar 7 " biggie Rowland S"~7 

C. F. - William Colhoff CF 

Reversed E lazy H - Ed Harris J ■*- 

v 

£ - Bill Harris 3 

Triangle Bar 5 - Bee Robinson ^~ D 
I - Ray Harris ^ 

*********** 
RED SHIRT TABLE SIOUX MAINTAIN NIGHT WATCH TO SAVE YOUNG TURKEYS 
(Excerpt from a report from an Indian Service field worker) 

"The day after this group (at the Red Shirt Table Community, Pine 
Ridge Agency) received their young turkeys, a cloudburst destroyed the poultry 
house and washed away one-third of their stock. Undaunted, they built a new 
house and they have had the remainder of their stock under the continuous 
guard of two members, night and day, ever since. I chatted with the fine 
looking old Indian couple who were on guard at the time of my visit. They 
had been much cheered by the opinion of the State's pountry expert who had 
just made an inspection and pronounced the turkeys the 'finest birds in the 
State.' This Indian group has formed the nucleus for a stock growers' as- 
sociation." 

32 



THE JEMEZ YUCCA RING-BASKET 
By Ten Broeck Williamson 





How A Basket (Mat) Is Held 

With The Feet While It Is 

Being Started 



Anna Maria Toya Binding 
The Edges Of The Mat 
To The Ring 



At Jemez Peiiblo, lying peacefully below its encircling red sand- 
stone mesas, women are winnowing and washing wheat with baskets identical to 
those made and used by generations of Pueblo women. 

Within the walls of their cool adobe houses, the women of Jemez 
are carrying on New Mexico's oldest industry - the manufacture of yucca-ring 
baskets. Archaeological evidence shows that during the Pueblo I period the 
craft originated and the technique was developed which has been handed down 
from Pueblo mother to daughter for more than 1,500 years. 

The baskets consist of two parts, a woven mat and a withe ring to 
which the mat is bound. Materials used are plentiful close to the Pueblo and 



33 



may be collected at any time during the year. Half a day's work with an axe, 
and a woman will have gathered enough yucca from the hills around Jemez to 
make fifteen or twenty mats. The narrow leaves of young plants are used for 
small baskets; wider and longer leaves go into the larger ones. The leaves 
weave better if allowed to dry a little after being cut. 

Along the Jemez River grow clumps of squaw bush (Rhus Trilobata) 
from which withes are cut and fashioned into rings for the rim around which 
the edges of the yucca mat are bound. While a ring is drying, its ends are 
bound with wire. When it is dry enough to retain its shape the wire is re- 
moved, the ends are matched, bound with yucca and the ring is ready for use. 

The best basket maker at Jemez is Anna Maria Toya who, despite 
her many duties as a housewife, turns out four or five excellent baskets a 
week. 

The mats are woven flat on the floor and, until well enough under 
way to retain their shape, are held in place by the weaver's feet. Three 
yucca leaves placed perpendicularly across three others form the foundation 
upon which the mats are woven, in an over 3, under 3, technique. This produces 
a pattern of series of concentric diamonds. There is no variation from this, 
nor is a two-color pattern ever attempted. 

Practically all mats are woven square, making round baskets, al- 
though occasionally an oblong mat is made which results in an oval container. 
When completed, a mat is sprinkled with water and pounded upon a flat stone 
to soften it before the ring is placed. 

Selecting a ring whose diameter comes well within that of a finished 
mat, Anna Maria slips the ring under the mat and, standing in the center, pulls 
the ring up until only the ends of the yucca extend above it. These protruding 
ends are bent around the squaw bush ring and are bound to themselves with 
strands of split yucca leaf, kept pliable in a bucket of water. The ends are 
clipped evenly all around and the basket is ready for use. Occasionally small 
baskets are fitted with a flat handle formed by braiding six strands of yucca 
and fastening it to the rim. 

Sturdy and well-made, with enough elasticity to take the strain of 
heavy loads, the average basket will stand five to ten years of ordinary use. 
According to Anna Maria, baskets first wear out on the inside, just below the 
rim. Shapes vary from 3 to 30 inches in diameter, although 18 to 26 inches is 
the average. Baskets within this range are preferred by Jemez women for winnow- 
ing and washing wheat, for holding shelled corn and for all the other tasks 
for which the baskets are so useful. 

Jemez people, however, are not alone in their fondness for and use 
of their baskets. Puebloans from as far away as Laguna and Acoma come to Jemez 



34 



to trade mutton and grain, beads and blankets for them. White residents use 
them for wood baskets and tourists find them useful and substantial souvenirs, 




Anna Maria Toya Standing With 
Some Of Her Finished Baskets 



(This article was reprinted with permission from El Palacio, week- 
ly review of arts and sciences in the archaeological Southwest, which is 
published by the School of American Research, the University of New Mexico 
and the Museum of New Mexico.) 



PERSONNEL CHANGES 



Richard M. Tisinger was transferred to the Phoenix School at Phoenix, 
Arizona on October 1, 1937 as Superintendent of Indian Schools in Charge. 
Sharon R. Mote, principal, is serving as special disbursing agent. 

Recent transfers of land field workers are as follows: 

Fred A. Baker, lend field agent, goes from Billings, Montana to 
Sacramento, California; E. M. Johnson has been transferred from Sacramento 
to Billings; and Rex H. Barnes and Clyde W. Flynn have been transferred from 
Minneapolis, Minnesota to Muskogee, Oklahoma to work under Mr. George G. Wren, 
in charge of land purchase work for Oklahoma. 

Lee Muck, who has been serving as Acting Director of Forestry, has 
been appointed Director. 



35 



CCC TORE CENTERS AROUND SOIL SAVING AT SHAWNEE, OKLAHOMA. 
By Robert Keokuk, Senior Foreman 



During the past year CCC work at the Shawnee Agency - which in- 
cludes the Sac and. Fox, Kickapoo, Iowa and Potawatomi Reservations - has 
centered around soil conservation. The illustrations show the physical work 
being done, which includes terracing to prevent soil washing and check dams 
to heal the gullies in fields which have already been damaged by erosion. 
The physical operations have been supplemented by educational work, in which 
the Indians have shown great interest. 

So far, the physical improvements have held up under heavy rains 
and maintenance costs have been low. 




Type Of Construction Now Being Done 
At Shawnee - Oklahoma 



36 




Reservoir Construction At Shawnee - Oklahoma 




An All-Indian Crew Building Terraces - Shawnee 



37 



A STORY OF INDIAN FIDELITY TO A PROMISE MADE ONE HUNDRED 
AND EIGHTY - TWO YEARS AGO 
By Joseph Henry Kilbuck 

Here is an incident based on historical fact, which reveals Indian 
fidelity to a promise kept through the years. At the battle of Braddock 1 s 
Defeat in the French and Indian War, a young Delaware - Chief Gelelemend, 
later called Kilbuck by the whites - fought with the French forces. During 
the height of the battle, in which the British General Braddock was mortally 
wounded, the young Indian brave also fell, seriously wounded. While Gelele- 
mend lay helpless on the ground, a detachment of infuriated British soldiers, 
with fixed bayonets, surrounded the wounded youth and were on the verge of 
killing him when Major Henry, at the risk of his own life, saved the life of 
the chief. Major Henry and George Washington, who later saved Braddock' s 
army from complete annihilation, were members of the colonial forces, but had 
been assigned to assist General Braddock in his attempt to capture Fort Du- 
que sne . 

This act of mercy, so unusual in all Indian warfare, not only touched 
the heartstrings of Chief Gelelemend, but those of the great Delaware, Chief 
Ifetawatwes, a counsellor of his nation and the grandfather of the rescued youth. 
Shortly a great council meeting was called by Chief Netawatwes. In the pres- 
ence of a large audience of his own people the chief told the story of the 
rescue of his grandson Gelelemend. In the glow of dimly burning council fires, 
Chief Netawatwes made a vow. 

"As long as the name Gelelemend (Kilbuck) lives, the name Henry 
will live with it, i n hon or of Major Henry who rescued my grandson - your 
Chief Gelelemend." 

Chief Gelelemend was confirmed into the Moravian Church as William 
Henry, but was more freauently known as William Henry Kilbuck. His three 
sons, John, Charles and Christian, were all named Henry to fulfill the vow of 
their grandfather. In the historic little graveyard at Goshen, Ohio, beside 
the grave of the noted Moravian Missionary, Zeisberger, may be found the 
grave of a Delaware chief, with this simple inscription on the stone marker: 

Gelelemend - William Henry . 

This tradition, which originated more than a quarter of a century 
before the American Colonies gained their independence, is entering its one 
hundred and eighty-second year. It had its origin in 1755 and during this 
period seven generations have kept its observance faithfully. 

Since the beginning of this custom, the direct lineage of the chief- 
hood of Gelelemend have used Henry as a middle name for both male and female 
members of the Kilbuck family. We live far from the Delaware country now - 
our home is in Hood River, Oregon - but all of our children bear the middle 
name of Henry. 

38 



C.C.O . ON THE SAN CABLOS INDIAN RESERVATION - CAMP NUMBER 8 

San Carlos Agency, Arizona. 
By Louis Moses, Apache Indian Leader 



(This story was written some months ago. Since writing it, Louis 
Moses has "been advanced to the status of Leader. He completed the Red Cross 
first aid course at Phoenix and now carries an instructor's card. Moses was 
nominated as a member of the San Carlos Apache Tribal Council, "but was too 
young to accept the nomination. CCC gave him his start.) 




Warm Springs Family Camp 

This camp has been going right along fine. Camp Number 8 has most- 
ly boys. Of course, we have some few married men. 

This camp is known best for building good fences; also, some other 
work, such as truck trails, horse trails and dams. During the month of June, 
July and August we builded a fence or reservation line about twenty miles 
through rough and mountainous country along the Gila Rim. We made it real 
good; not even a rabbit could go through. We are very glad that we made it 



39 



good, so our parents' cattle can't be driven out again, or wander around and 
go through the fence to white man's land. Nowadays, the cattle are very 
happy "because we put up several troughs and dams. They come around and 
quench their thirst. 

During summer we had about eighty boys and so we organized a base- 
ball team. They were all good ball players. Some claimed themselves as Babe 
Huth. Last summer we had a tournament with other camps and we beat them 
all because our boys were fast and heavy hitters. We became champions. 

Other games we have are checkers, dominoes, horseshoes, and cards. 
Now we are playing football and we are hoping that we beat them all again. 
We are also playing basket ball and we seem to be fast. Of course, we all 
make zips through the basket ball ring and I'm sure it's going to be hard for 
other teams to beat us. 

Most of all, the boys are real champions at the table I 

At night we -out up our Indian dances. Some of them do the singing, 
while others are dancing - boy and girl. We don't really have girls, but 
we make ourselves as girls by putting pretty blankets around us. After the 
dance we all go to dream and find ourselves as fresh as a rosy apple in the 
morning when we wake up. 

The boys are very glad when payday comes because they are then able 
to buy many things they need most. 

The foreman of this camp is John A. Weldon. He has* stayed with 
this camp for three years. He is a very good man; all the Indians like him. 

Since this work has begun, men and boys have bought many good things 
- saddle horses, tents and equipment. Some of the boys of this camp are rodeo 
champions. I guess married mens support their families, while we single boys 
support our parents and ourselves. 

We all hope that this work will last longer because we are getting 
so much good things done. 



WHO'S WHO 

Mr. Ten Broeck Williamson, whose article entitled "The Jemez Yucca 
Ring-Basket" appears on page 33 of this issue, is a graduate of the Department 
of Anthropology of the University of California and is now employed by the Soil 
Conservation Service. 



40 



TWO SURVIVORS OF THE BATTLE OF THE LITTLE BIG HORN 
By Frank White Buffalo Man (Great Grandson Of Sitting Bull) 





One Bull 



White Bull 



Among the few survivors of the Battle of the Little Big Horn are 
Henry Oscar One Bull and Joseph White Bull, "blood brothers. One Bull lives 
on the Standing Rock Reservation at Little Eagle, South Dakota; White Bull's 
home is at Cherry Creek, South Dakota, on the Cheyenne River Reservation. 

One Bull, now eighty-four, has a pictograph, or illuminated map 
which shows the story of the battle. 

White Bull, his brother, believes that he may have fired the shot 
that killed Custer. He says, "A soldier fired at me and nearly hit me and 
I killed him. Afterwards other braves said that man was Custer." 



41 



Paintings of the battle which depict Custer as making a last stand 
with just a handful of soldiers are inaccurate, according to white Bull. He 
says Custer was killed when the tattle was about half over. "We did not know 
where the soldiers were until three days before the battle. Then scouts 
brought us word." There were about 800 braves, he says, who attacked Custer. 
It was in the morning when they attacked and before noon it was over. 

White Bull, who, according to General Nelson A. Miles, was the 
fiercest of them all, is now in his eighty-seventh year. His eyes are clear; 
his step is steady; his voice is strong. Only his hearing has failed him. 



( Note : Photographs of One Bull and White Bull were used with the permission 
of Frank Fiske of Fort Yates, North Dakota.) 



CCC - ID HELPS _IN TICK ERADICATION ON ALABAMA AND COUSHATTA RESERVATION . TEXAS 

By J. E. Farley, Agent 

In 1934 and 1935, we constructed, with CCC funds, a range fence 
around the entire reservation, twenty- three miles in length. It has proved 
its value in many ways, especially in fighting cattle ticks. 

This area has been heavily infested with ticks and they were spread- 
ing into the clean counties nearby. The state and the federal government are 
working together to eradicate the ticks and to prevent their spread. Early 
in 1937 a dipping vat was built on the reservation and in May the dinping of 
horses, cattle, and mules began. In this county we are required to dip every 
fourteen days for at least nine months. Because we have an enclosed area and 
keep our fence repaired and since we have been able to see that every animal 
is dipped regularly, it is likely that our reservation can be released as a 
clean area at the end of the nine months. Stock owners in the remainder of 
the county may have to dip for several years. Most of our white neighbors 
have sold all of their beef cattle because they were running on the open 
range and it was too much trouble to pen them up for dipping every fourteen 
days. Without our range fence we should have had the same difficulty. 

As the dipping program had been carefully explained to our Indians 
several months before it actually took place, they have entered into it with 
willingness and enthusiasm. In fact, the live-stock dipping has not only 
been an educational experience but a source of amusement as well. 

Some of the boys have learned roping, throwing and tying calves 
through the bi-weekly round-up and soon the idea of a rodeo was born. After 
each dipping the men began putting on a rodeo for their families and for the 
Fourth of July the Indians put on a real rodeo - the first in the history of c 
their tribe. Judging from the enthusiasm it aroused, I am sure it will not 
be the last. 

42 



N0TL5 FR.OM WEEKLY PROGRESS REPORTS OF 
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS ~ INDIAN DIVISION 



Fence Work Progresses At Mesca - 
lero (New Mexico ) Work was resumed 
where it was left off last week. Ev- 
erything went about as usual with 
the crew doing its work as hard as 
it could be expected. We have come 
to the end of the work with the com- 
pletion of 5-3/4 miles of steer 
pasture fence. We like the fence 
job very much although we have had 
some difficulties in places along 
the fence line. We managed to over- 
come these difficulties without too 
much trouble. J. A. Montoya . 

Spillway Work At Standing Rock 
( North Dakota ) The work for the 
week on Project #122-179 consisted 
of moving dirt out of the core by 
use of the drag line, driving pil- 
ing for cut-off wall in the end of 
the core that has been completed, 
and cutting the spillway. 

The work has been progressing 
nicely and all men connected with 
this project are putting forth every 
effort to complete this project and 
complete it in the best possible 
manner as it will be, when completed, 
the largest earth dam on the reser- 
vation. Ambro se Shields , Timekeeper . 

District And Boundary Fence 
Maintenance At Sells ( Arizona ) Prog- 
ress was very satisfactory this week. 
The crew completed maintenance on 
ten miles of fence on the East bound- 
ary over very rough and mountainous 
country. 

Some of the old wire flood gates 
were washed out and had to be repaired 
and replaced. Albert R. Ellis . 



Truck Trail Construction At 
Fort Tot ten ( North Dakota) The East 
End Truck Trail has been surveyed 
and plans are being submitted to the 
District Office for approval. One 
dangerous "Y" has been widened and 
graveled to insure greater safety 
when turning on the main road- Two 
"close calls" by a government em- 
ployee prompted us to do this. 
Christian A. Huber . Junior Engineer . 

Varied Activities At Uintah & 
Ouray ( Utah ) The carpenter crew has 
started building tent frames. The 
kitchen and dining room tents are al- 
most ready for occupancy; this will 
give the cook more room, as well as 
the boys while eating. 

Project #301 : The road crew 
has been handicapped by having to 
do a lot of work which the caterpil- 
lar could have done, but they are 
showing very good cooperation. 

Volley ball and horseshoe pitch- 
ing are the interests when not on 
hikes and strolls. Exploring the 
ancient rock houses will always be 
of interest as well as going on hikes 
or just listening to the radio. 

In general, the project on Hill 
Creek will, in the near future, be 
able to show results. Now the work 
is rather slow. At present it is 
just the beginning. Starting the 
work on a new reservation seems to 
be the hardest. Phillip Arkansas , 
Sub-Foreman . 

Boundary Fence Construction 
Progressing At Mission ( California ) 



43 



The South and East Boundary fenc- 
ing of the reservation in Black Can- 
yon has been completed and the fence 
crew is working on the North Boundary. 
The West Boundary is on a rough and 
steep hillside and the brush is so 
thick that fence is not needed as far 
as cattle drifting is concerned. The 
adjoining ground is National Forest 
and we have planned to omit this fence. 

On spring development, the first 
spring has been abandoned because in 
order to get a good flow, we would 
have to go outside the boundary. So 
we are trying another site below. 
James F. O'Connor . 

Garage Maintenance At Navajo 
( Chin Lee ) ( Arizona ) The enrollees 
and personnel of the garage at Chin 
Lee have been working earnestly on 
the trucks and cars this past week. 
The difference between the cars and 
trucks when they come into the gar- 
age and when they go out, looks as if 
the boys are doing a good job on all 
of them. 

I have not been working here 
very long, but from the way things 
look, I think the men and boys work 
together fine. Benny Taylor , Asst . 
Leader . 

Dam Development At Rosebud 
( South Dakota ) A group of men spent 
the week in compiling data and mak- 
ing tracings of the Okreek Dam. These 
tracings are to be sent to Billings 
to aid the Billings Office in design- 
ing the cut-off for this dam. 

Two springs were located but de- 
velopment of neither is feasible. 
The remainder of the week was spent 
in inspecting the projects now under 
construction. E. E. Caddes. 



Construction Soon To Begin At 
Pima ( Arizona ) For the reason that 
a considerable percentage of the In- 
dian enrollees are still busy with 
farm work, construction projects 
have been purposely delayed. After 
another ten days, farm work will be 
mostly completed and during that 
time the engineering field work 
will also be completed and real 
construction work can then be started 
advantageously to all. 

The weather is still extremely 
hot but we have been getting some 
rain and as the days are also much 
shorter, cooler weather is now in 
sight. Clyde H. Packer , Project 
Manager . 

Trail Repair At Colorado River 
( Arizona ) We have changed the work 
and are now repairing the trail 
from the highway to the Fort Mohave 
Day School; then through the middle 
of the reservation to the old Fort 
Mohave Boarding School. The road 
became very rough because of the 
lack of rain. F. M. Parker . 

Truck Trail Maintenance At 
Hoopa Valley ( California ) Two 
crews and both bulldozers are work- 
ing on truck trail maintenance. 
Work is being done on the Mail Truck 
Trail and the Big Hill Trail. The 
Big Hill crew will move to the Mill 
Creek Truck Trail shortly. It is 
hoped to have all truck trails in 
good shape prior to the winter rains 
ao as to prevent any great damage 
and lessen the work in the spring. 

A crew of men began work on 
the Grasshopper Horse Trail Proj- 
ect. This is a new project. The 
men living on Bald Hill have been 
picked for this crew as most of 



44 



then live near the work and this 
eliminates hauling the crew any- 
great distance. 

We are happy to report that no 
fires took place on the reservation 
during the week. Some "burning seems 
to "be going on by the sheepmen in 
the Bald Hills country "but there is 
no danger of its coming on the re- 
servation. Patrick I. Rogers , As - 
sistant Clerk . 

Work Progressing On Happy Val - 
ley Dam At Warm Springs (Oregon ) One 
acre of "brush has "been cleared and 
piled this week. We are having 
good weather and the work is progress- 
ing nicely. P. Murdock . 

Fire Hazard Reduction Work At 
Pine Ridge ( South Dakota ) The crew 
is still working on the reduction 
of fire hazards along the truck 
trail in the east end of the buffalo 
pasture at the Allen Camp. 

There are a couple of men who 
were hired to maintain the fire- 
break around the buffalo pasture. 
They are plowing and dragging the 
fireguard. Louie Reynolds , Junior 
Foreman . 

Irrigation Work At Rocky Boy's 
( Montana ) The main diversion ditch 
from Box Elder Creek to the Brown 
Dam is nearly finished. This ditch 



carries most of the water for the 
irrigation below the Brown Dam. 

The engine room for our new 
light plant was given two coats of 
white paint on the inside and a 
coat of cream color paint on the 
outside. William W. Hyde , Project 
Manager . 

Garage Almost Complete At Pierre 
Indian School ( South Dakota ) In a 
few more days our garage will be com- 
pleted. That is, the walls, roof, 
and doors will be completed. We have 
it all stuccoed inside and outside 
and it looks very nice. We e^ect 
to level up our floor inside and use 
it for a while to get it well-packed 
before running cement in. 

The excavation is well under way 
for the cottage and we will put up 
frames and run forms next week. We 
also hope to raise part of the brick 
during the coming week. _S. J. Wood . 

Activities At Keshena ( Wisconsin ) 
Many of the CCC boys attended the 
County Fair where they had a good 
time. The reservation booth was a 
big attraction at the Fair. 

The Shawano County Fair inter- 
upted the progress on some projects. 
The men were permitted to lay off 
and attend the fair for one day. W. 
Ridlington , Project Manager * 






45 



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